Government agency action can include rule making, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. Administrative law is considered a branch of public law. As a body of law, administrative law deals with the decision making of the administrative units of government for example, tribunals, boards or commissions that are part of a national regulatory scheme in such areas as police law, international trade, manufacturing, the environment, taxation, broadcasting, immigration and transport. Administrative law expanded greatly during the twentieth century, as legislative bodies worldwide created more government agencies to regulate the social, economic and political spheres of human interaction. Administrative law in the People's Republic of China was virtually non existent before the economic reform era initiated by Deng Xiaoping. Since the 1980s, the People's Republic of China has constructed a new legal framework for administrative law, establishing control mechanisms for overseeing the bureaucracy and disciplinary committees for the Communist Party of China. However, many have argued that the usefulness of these laws is vastly inadequate in terms of controlling government actions, largely because of institutional and systemic obstacles like a weak judiciary, poorly trained judges and lawyers, and corruption. In 1990, the Administrative Supervision Regulations 行政检查条例 and the Administrative Reconsideration Regulations 行政复议条例 were passed. The 1993 State Civil Servant Provisional Regulations 国家公务员暂行条例 changed the way government officials were selected and promoted, requiring that they pass exams and yearly appraisals, and introduced a rotation system. The three regulations have been amended and upgraded into laws. In 1994, the State Compensation Law 国家赔偿法 was passed, followed by the Administrative Penalties Law 行政处罚法 in 1996.
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A volume number is assigned each year, and the pagination is continuous throughout the year. A legal citation, 61 FR 60396, refers to the volume number 61 and the page 60396 on which the information is printed. Federal rulemaking requirements provide that agencies publish proposed rules in the Federal Register and accept comments before promulgating a final regulation. When the rule is final, it is published in its entirety in the Federal Register. The print edition of the Federal Register Index is located in the Reading Room. Additionally, the Federal Register is available electronically at any of the Reading Room public computers through subscription databases including HeinOnline, 9 , and LexisNexis Library Express, 9; it is also available free online through FDsys, . General and permanent rules that appear in the Federal Register are also published in the Code of Federal Regulations CFR, which is the codified form of rules and regulations issued by federal agencies. The CFR is arranged by subject and has fifty 50 titles or subject areas. 101 1, refers to the title number 26 and the section number 1. 101 1. The CFR is updated in its entirety every year on a staggered basis, with a quarterly publication of selected titles in January, April, July, and October.